The Solar System Notes | Questions

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Solar System – Important SSC Notes | Questions

Solar System – Important SSC Notes | Questions


In this Chapter, we will know about Galaxy, Star, The Solar System, The Sun,
The Moon, Asteroids, Meteoroids, Comets, Inner planet and the Outer planet,
The various factor which makes the earth suitable for life to survive,
The Eight Planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
and many other important of the solar system that was asked in SSC and
other Competitive examination.

Lets Start Solar System – Important SSC Notes | Questions

The Universe

  • Matter and Energy.
  • The Study of the universe is known as Cosmology.


A galaxy is a vast system of billions of stars which also
contains a large number of gas clouds(mainly hydrogen gas)
and dust, isolated space for the similar system.There are three types of the galaxy :

(1) Spiral Galaxy
(2) Elliptical galaxy
(3) Irregular Galaxy.

  • Milkyway and Andromeda are the two largest known galaxies.
  • The Milkyway galaxy is the home of the earth and our solar system.
  • It is Spherical in shape.
  • The latest Known Galaxy is a draft galaxy.


Stars are the hot burning gases. Sun is also a star.


The Solar System

The Solar System Consists of the Sun, the eight
planets and their satellite(moon) and thousands of other small
heavenly bodies such as Stories, Comets, Metorois etc.

  • The Sun is at the center of the solar system and their bodies are revolving around it.
  • In solar system the planets nearest to the sun are mercury,
    and the planet which is farthest from the sun is Neptune.
  • The sun is the only source of energy in the solar system.

The Sun

  • The sun is at the center of the solar system.
  • It is the nearest star to the earth.
  • It is the ultimate source of energy for life.
  •  On earth, it is composed of 71% Hydrogen, 26.5% Helium and 2.5% other elements.
  • Hydrogen and Helium are the main gas present in the Sun.
  • It has a surface temperature of about 6000 degrees Celcius.
  • Light takes about 8.5 min to reach the earth.

The Planets

  • There is Eight planet in our solar system.
  • Jupiter is the biggest.
  • Mercury is the smallest planet of our solar system.


  • Mercury is the closest planet to the sun.
  • It is the extremely hot planet and has no water on it.
  • It has no atmosphere and no satellite.


  • Venus is the second planet in distance from the sun.
  • This plane is nearest to the earth.
  • It is the biggest planet.
  • It is also known as evening and morning star.
  • Venus has no water on it.
  • Venus is just like earth in comparison to mass and size.
  • It is also known as earth Twins.
  • It is probably the hottest planet because its atmosphere contains 90-95% of carbon dioxide.
  • It has no satellite.

The Earth

  • The Earth is the largest of the inner planet.
  • It takes 23 hours 56 minutes and 4 seconds to rotates on its axis.
  • It takes 365 days 5 hours and 48 minutes to revolve around the sun.
  • Earth is also known as the watery planet or the blue planet due to the
    presence of a large amount of water on it.
  • The earth is 23.5 degrees tilted on its axis and makes an angle of 66.5 degrees.


  • Marsh is also called the red planet due to the presence of pink soil.
  • It has a thin atmosphere comprising of Argon and Nitrogen.
  • It has two satellite namely “Phobes” and “Deimos”.


  • It is the largest planet in the solar system.
  • It is also known as winter planet as its temperature is very low through the time.
  • Its atmosphere contains Hydrogen, Helium, methane, and ammonia.
  • It has 62 known satellite.


  • It is the second largest planet in the solar system.
  • It has the bright concentric ring which is made up of ice, dust particle which revolves around it.
  • It has 23 known satellite.
  • Titan is the largest moon of Saturn.


  • It is surrounded by 5 rings namely α, β, γ, δ, and ε.
  • The axis of Uranus has the large inclination so that it appears to be laying down.
  • It is the coldest planet because the average temp is about -223 deg C.
  • It has 15 satellite.


  • It is very similar to Uranus and also considers as its twins.
  • It has 5 Rings.
  • It has 8 planets.


The Moon

  • Moon is the only satellite of the earth.
  • It moves around the sun in about 27 days.
  • The light from the moon takes 1.3 seconds to reach the earth.
  • The moon has no atmosphere.
  • The size of the moon is 1/4 of the earth.
  • The gravitational pull of the moon is 1/6 that of the earth.
  • The study of the moon is called Selenology.


  • Apart from the stars, planet, and satellite, there are many tiny bodies. which revolve around the Sun. These bodies are called Asteroids.
  • They are mainly found between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
  • The largest Aestroids is The Ceres.


  • The small piece of rocks, which moves around the sun are called meteoroids.
  • They are also called Shooting stars due to heat produced by air resistance
    when it moves towards the earth


  • Comets are huge clouds of frozen gases and dust which have their home in the cold
    outer fringes of the solar system.
  • Hailey’s Comet is seen every 76 years.
  • The tail of a comet is always faced away from the Sun.

Difference between the Inner planet and Outer planet.

Inner Planet :

(1) They include Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Marsh.
(2) They are nearest to the Sun.
(3) They have very few natural satellite or no satellite.
(4) They have a mantle rich in iron and Magnesium.

Outer  Planet :

(1) They include Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune.
(2) They are far away from the Sun.
(3) They are made up of hot gases mainly Hydrogen and Helium.
(4) They are all gaseous body.
(5) They have a large number of natural Satellite.


The various factor which makes the earth suitable for life to survive :

(1) The Earth has all the essential elements like carbon(in the form of carbon dioxide),
Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Oxygen which acts as building blocks for the origin of Life.(2) The Earth is neither too hot nor too cold. It has the right temperature range for
carrying out the life-sustaining Chemical reaction.

(3) The earth has lots of water in the form of Lakes, Rivers, and Oceans for the growth
and Survival of Life.

(4) The Earth has a protective blanket of the Ozone layer to protect life from the harmful
ultraviolet rays (UV rays) Comming from the Sun.


Important facts about The Solar System :

  • Biggest planet
  • Smallest plant
  • Satellite of Earth
  • Nearest planet from Sun
  • Farthest planet from Sun
  • Nearest planet to Earth
  • Brightest planet
  • Brightest star
Dog Star
  • Planet having the maximum number of satellite
Jupiter (63)
  • Coldest planet
  • Red planet (seen at night)
  • Heaviest planet
  • Biggest satellite of solar
Ganymede system
  • Smallest satellite of solar system
  • Red planet
  • Morning star
  • Evening star
  • Sister of Earth
  • 9th planet

Solar System – Important SSC Notes | Questions

Q1. Who of the following discovered the law of planetary orbits?

Ans. Johannes Kepler

Q2. Which planet looks reddish in the night sky?
Ans. Mars

Q3. The outermost layer of the sun is called …?
Ans. Corona

Q4. If there is no sun, the color of the sky would be …..?
Ans. Black

Q5. Which planet is known as the Earth’s twin?
Ans. Venus

Q6. Which of the following is largest of the inner planet?
Ans. Earth

Q.7. Which planet is called a red planet?
Ans: Mars

Q8. The brightest planet:
Ans: Venus

Q9. The largest planet in our solar system:
Ans: Jupiter

Q10. The fifth largest planet of solar system:

Q11. Natural Satellite of Earth:

Q12. Nearest planet to the Earth:

Q13. Planet having maximum number of satellite:
Ans: Jupiter

Q14. What is the time taken by the light of the Sun to reach on the Earth?
Ans: 8 Minute 18 Second

Q15.Which of the following planets in the Solar System takes the shortest revolution?
Ans: Mercury

Click to get more Question of The Solar System MCQ SSC Questions



Earth Longitude

• It is the angular distance measured from die center of
the earth. On the globe, the lines of longitude are drawn
as a series of semicircles that extend from the North Pole
to the South Pole through the equator. They are also
called meridians.• The distance between any two meridians is not equal.

• There are 360 meridians of longitude. The prime
meridian is a longitude of 00, passing through the Royal
The observatory at Greenwich near London.meridian (International Date Line) lies exactly opposite to 0° meridian. Such points are called Antipodal Points.

• The earth is divided into 24 longitudinal zones, each
being 15° or 1 hour apart in time (4 minutes/degree).

Longitude & Time

• Places that are on the same meridian have the same local
(sun) time. Since the earth makes one complete
the revolution of 360° in 24 hours, it passes through 15° in
one hour or 1° in 4 minutes.• The earth rotates from west to east, hence places east of
Greenwich see the sun earlier & gain time whereas
places west of Greenwich see the sun later & lose time.

• India, whose longitudinal extent is approx. 30°, has
adopted only one-time zone, selecting the 82.5°E for the
standard time which is 5 hours & 30 minutes ahead of
GMT (Greenwich Mean Time).

International Date Line

• It is the 180° meridian running over the Pacific Ocean,
deviating at the Aleutian Islands, Fiji, Samoa & Gilbert
Islands. It is a zig-zag line

Important Parallels of Latitude

1. The Tropic of Cancer: It is in the northern hemisphere at an angular distance of
23 1/2° (23°30’N) from the equator.2. The Tropic of Capricorn: It is in the southern hemisphere at an angular distance of 23 1/2° (23°30’S) from the equator.3. The Arctic Circle: It lies at a distance of 66 1/2° (66°30’N)
north of the equator.

4. The Antarctic Circle: It lies at a distance of 66 1/2°
(66°30’S) south of the equator. There are two solstices each
year, called the Summer Solstice & the Winter Solstice.
Summer Solstice: The day of 21st June when the sun is
vertically overhead at the Tropic of Cancer
(23°30’N). Longest day in Northern Hemisphere.

Conclusion :

We cover all the important points related to the solar system. If You follow all above points then it really helps you in the Competitive examinations like SSC, Railway, and other exams.

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Solar System – Important SSC Notes | Questions

Solar System – Important SSC Notes | Questions

Solar System – Important SSC Notes | Questions

Solar System – Important SSC Notes | Questions


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