Time and Tenses

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Tenses for SSC, Banking, and Other Competitive examination

What Do tense mean?

TENSE stand for a verb form or series of verb forms used to express a
time relation. These may indicate whether an action, activity or state is
PAST, PRESENT or FUTURE Tense may also indicate whether an action, activity,
or state is, was, or will be complete, or whether it is, was or be in progress
over a period of time.

 

Look at these sentences:

He works hard.[Present Time]

He worked hard. [Past Time]

He will work hard. [Future Time]

 

In Sentence “1” the verb “works” refer to the present time and therefore
said to be in the Present Tense.

In sentence “2” the verb “worked” refer to the past time and therefore
said to be Past Tense.

In sentence “3” the verb “will work” refers to the future time and therefore
said to be Future Tense.

Kinds of Tenses.

On the basis of time tenses have been divided into three classes :

1.Present Tense.

2.Pase Tense.

3.Future Tense.

 

To show the progress or stage of an action tense has been divided into four classes:

 

1.Simple

2.Continuous or Imperfect or Progressive.

3.Perfect.

4.Perfect Continous Or Perfect Progressive.

 

14Tense chart

Tenses rules

 

13Simple Present Tense

Negative Sentence Do / Does + not + v¹
Interrogative Sentence Do / Does + Subject + v¹
1. To express habitual action.

example – I go to School Daily.

2. To express Universal Truth.

example – The Sun rises in the east.

3.To express an action which starts in past but complete in future.

example – The Prime minister Visits Japan.

4. To express fixed programme.

example – Tomorrow is my birthday.

5. It is used with the conditional words to express two actions in future.

example – As soon as I get my mobile recharge I will call you first.

6. To express mental activity, feeling, and emotions.

NOTE: This will not use with continuous tense. It can be used with continuous tense if it
changes its meaning

 

example – I look at you.
                 I know You.
                 I am looking into the matter.

7. If two action of the future time is referred to, we use simple present tense
in the subordinate clause beginning with if, when, before, after, unless, until,
in case, as long as, as soon as.

example – If he works hard, he will succeed.
                 You shall not go out until I come back.
                 As soon as he comes, I will give him this present.

8.In imperative Sentence.

example – Clean the room.
                Please do this work for me.

 

12Present Continuous Tense

 

Negative Sentence is / are / am + not + v4
Interrogative Sentence is / are / am + Subject + v4
1. For a fixed programme in the near future

example- I am going to Delhi tonight.
               He is coming tomorrow.

2. To show a gradual development or change or decline in somethings

example- The condition of the patient is improving.
                The number of the shops is decreasing.

3. For an action which is in progress at the present time but not necessarily at the
time of speaking

example – I am writing a book on English.
                She is making a film on the life of Mahatma Gandhi.

4. For an action which is going on at the time of speaking or at this moment

example – I am listening to the radio.
                They are watching television.

 

 

11Present Perfect Tense

 

Negative Sentence have / has + not + v3
Interrogative Sentence have / has + Subject + v3 …?
1. To show an activity completed in the immediate past.

example: I have just received my father’s letter.
                The train has left the station.

2. To express a past activity, which is op presence importance
(the time is not given and define)

example: I have seen the India gate.
               She has visited Goa three times.

3. Normally with the Adverbs or Adverb Phrases of Time like
yet, as yet, already, just, so far, up to now, during the last few weeks/months/years etc.

example: He has not come yet.
               The thief has not been caught so far.
               I have not seen her during the last few weeks.

4. For an action which started at some time in the past and is continuing
up to the present moment(often with since-and for-phrases)

example: He has lived here for three years. ( means still living)
               She has worked here since 2001. (means still working)

 

10Present Perfect Continuous Tense

 

Negative Sentence have / has + not + been + v4
Interrogative Sentence have / has + Subject + been + v…?
1. For an action which started at some time in the past and
is continuing up to the present moments.example: He has been living here for three years.
               She has been working here since 2008.2. For an action which started in the past time and has now
ended but its effect is still seen.example: It has been raining all the day.
                He has been working in the field.3. In the Interrogative sentence beginning with ‘For how long’
or ‘since when’example: For how long have you been waiting for mala?
               Since when has he been working in the office?

 

 

9Simple Past Tense

1. For an action or event which took place in the past.

example: He came here in 2005.
                My father died a month ago.

2.For a past habit.

example: He always helped me.
               She never came late.

3. To express an unreal situation of the present time
the simple past tense is used in the sentences containing if,
as if, as though, I wish, we wish, he wishes etc

example: I wish I were a king.
               If he came, I would help him

4. Sometimes for actions going on at some time in the past.

example: While he danced, he sang.
               She sang while he cooked food.

5. If in the Direct Narration the Reporting Verb is in the Past tense
and the reported speech is in the simple present tense, in the indirect narration
the simple past tense is used in the reported speech.

example: She said, “I am late.” [direct narration]
                She said that she was late. [indirect narration]

 

8Past Continuous Tenses

1. For an action going on at some time in the past.
example: I was reading a novel.
               They were making a noise.2.For an action going on at the time when a new action happened.example: When he came, I was watching television.
                While she was dancing. her father arrived.

 

 

 

7Past Perfect Tense

1. For an action which had been completed before another was commenced.

example: I had reached the school before the bell rang.
He reached the station after the train had started.

2. After ‘if, as nif.as thought, I wish, we wish etc ‘ to express
an unreal situation of the past.

example: I wish I had seen Mahatma Gandhi.
He speaks as if he had returned from London.

3. With the verb like ‘hope,expect,think,mean,intend,suppose’
to express an unfulfilled hope, expectation, etc of the past.

example: I had hoped to see you but I fell ill.
               She had not intended to hurt you.

 

6Past Perfect Continuous Tense

1. For an action going on in the past.

example: He had been reading for three hours When I arrived.
               She had been working there for thirty years when she died.

 

 

5Simple Future Tense

1. For an action or event which will take place in the future.

example: I shall do this work tomorrow.
               He will wait for you at the station.

2. For determination, threat, command in future.

example: I will do it at all costs.[determination]
               You shall not go out.[command/order]

3. To express the future events or stated which we cannot control.

example: He will be seventy in January.
               Our result will we declared in November.

 

 

4Future Continuous Tenses

1. For an action which will be going on at some time in the future.

example: He will be sitting on the train at this time tomorrow.
                They will be playing when you come.

 

 

3Future Perfect Tenses

1. For an action which will be completed by a certain future time.

example: By this time tomorrow you will have reached Bihar.
               He will have returned home before Sunday.

2. For an action supposed to have been done in the past.

example: You will have heard the same name of Mukesh Ambani.
                She will have reached the station.

 

 

2Future Perfect Continous

1. For an action which will continue up to a definite time in the future.

example: By the end of this month he will have been living there
                for four years.
                By next June you will have been teaching there for six months.

 

Some Questions of Tenses

1) When the Principal entered the class, a student………. on the blackboard.

(a) Wrote

(b) was writing

(c) writes

(d) is writing


 

(a) watch

(b) was watching

(c) is watching

(d) watched


(3) He always………to prove that the earth revolves around the sun.

(a) tried

(b) tries

(c) was trying

(d) is trying


(4) He saw me by chance and……….the car.

(a) stop

(b) stopped

(c) stops

(d) was stopping


(5) How many pegs of wine……yesterday?

(a) you have drank

(b) were you drinking

(c) did you drink

(d) do you drink


(6) I was watching TV when she…….in.

(a) comes

(b) came

(c) come

(d) was coming


(7) She cut her finger while she……..vegetables.

(a) cutting

(b) was cutting

(c) cut

(d) had cut


(8) She still remembers the day when she first……..to church.

(a) went

(b) was going

(c) gone

(d) going


(9) The train had left before I…….the station.

(a) reach

(b) was reaching

(c) reached

(d) reaches


(10) Had you worked hard, you……passed?

(a) would

(b) will

(c) would have

(d) will have

 

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